Categories
Archive

Global South Urbanization Does Not Have to Harm Biodiversity

By David SouthDevelopment Challenges, South-South Solutions

SOUTH-SOUTH CASE STUDY

How to balance fragile ecosystems with rapid urbanization will be the challenge for planners and governments across the global South in the coming years. The urbanization trend is clear: the world’s total urban area is expected to triple between 2000 and 2030, with urban populations set to double to around 4.9 billion in the same period (UNEP). This urban expansion will draw heavily on water and other natural resources and will consume prime agricultural land.

Global urbanization will have significant implications for biodiversity and ecosystems if current trends continue, with knock-on effects for human health and development, according to a new assessment by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Cities and Biodiversity Outlook – the first global analysis of how projected patterns of urban land expansion will affect biodiversity and crucial ecosystems – argues that promoting low-carbon, resource-efficient urban development can counter urbanization’s adverse effects on biodiversity while improving quality of life.

“The way our cities are designed, the way people live in them and the policy decisions of local authorities, will define, to a large extent, future global sustainability,” said Braulio Dias, Executive Secretary of the CBD.

“The innovation lies not so much in developing new infrastructural technologies and approaches but to work with what we already have. The results often require fewer economic resources and are more sustainable,” he added.

The report says urban expansion is occurring fast in areas close to biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and coastal zones. And rapidly urbanizing regions, such as large and mid-size settlements in sub-Saharan Africa, India and China, often lack resources to implement sustainable urban planning.

But the study found that cities do not need to be in conflict with plant and animal species and ecosystems. They can, in fact, protect species, as is the case with Belgium, where 50 per cent of the country’s floral species are found in Brussels, or Poland, where 65 per cent of the country’s bird species occur in Warsaw.

At the Alexander von Humboldt Research Institute in Bogota, Colombia (humboldt.org.co) researchers have been thinking about how to get this balance right and make sure the growing cities of the future are not ecological disasters.

According to Juana Marino and Maria Angélica Mejia at the Institute’s Biological Resources Policy Program – which investigates “Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Urban-Regional Environments” – how cities grow and develop must change.

They believe cities need to take into account the resources they require to function and the impact this has on biodiversity and ecosystems.

“The more people who arrive in cities, the more they demand goods and services (in a massive way!): roads, housing, infrastructure, food, water – (creating) an impressive amount of waste, challenging traditional waste management and sanitation policies,” said Marino.

In short, “Cities enhance consumption.”

The Humboldt researchers believe common patterns can be seen across the global South, where ecosystems “surrounding urban areas are deforested and have significant levels of water and air pollution; they also become deeply transformed by informal settlements.”

This process means cities “lose their ability to be resilient, they become highly vulnerable to global change and they decrease their production of ecosystem services to maintain human well-being in cities.”

They argue that human settlements must be sustainably planned for, with ecological resilience and human well-being. If this is not done, areas suitable for agricultural production and biodiversity preservation will be harmed.

While better planning is needed there also needs to be long-term thinking.

But planning and managing are not the only things required: “it is a matter of design” if new “resilient” urban-rural landscapes are to be created.

And what can be done? They believe better analysis is required and it needs to take on social and cultural knowledge, and take in the border regions around cities, the “suburban, peri-urban and other ‘transition’ landscapes should become main actors in these relationships, not mere by-products; (they are) compromise territories between a lack of definition and low governance.”

These complex relationships with the border ecosystems of cities need to be communicated to the general public in simple, user-friendly ways so they can understand how important these areas are to the overall health of the city.

In Latin America, the cities of Curitiba (Brazil) and Bogotá and Medellin (Colombia) have made great strides in managing and planning for biodiversity and ecosystem services, they say. But it is not just as simple as recording the number of native species and the percentage of protected areas in urban places. Links need to be created between “social, scientific and political” elements to create “socio-ecological indicators” that can be developed and turned into “easy-to-adopt mechanisms” for people to use.

And they see innovation as the way to do this. Innovation is critical if cities and urban areas are to avoid widespread destruction of biodiversity as urbanization increases.

“Innovation is not just an option – it is a ‘must’,” said Marino. “Not just the technical innovation already being carried on by infrastructure, transport and building sectors that are rapidly changing their patterns based on mitigation technologies.

“Innovation is also needed in terms of biodiversity, biotechnology, information and knowledge production; appropriation, use and management. Knowledge turns into innovation when appropriated by social spheres; when it enters the social and political arenas.”

Environmental governance can be strengthened “when promoting top-down and bottom-up innovations.”

Published: December 2012

Resources

1) Environmental Public Awareness Handbook: Case Studies and Lessons Learned in Mongolia. Website: http://tinyurl.com/yhjyd7h

2) Hyderabad Case Study: During the recent UN biodiversity talks in Hyderabad, the International Union for Conservation of Nature gave journalists the opportunity to see how biodiversity can thrive in the middle of a bustling metropolis. Website: http://www.rtcc.org/hyderabad-a-showcase-of-urban-biodiversity/

3) UNEP: A Global Partnership on Cities and Biodiversity was launched by UNEP, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), UN-HABITAT, ICLEI, IUCN Countdown 2010, UNITAR, UNESCO and a Steering Group of Mayors from Curitiba, Montreal, Bonn, Nagoya and Johannesburg to bring together existing initiatives on cities and biodiversity. Website: http://www.unep.org/urban_environment/issues/biodiversity.asp

4) Nature in the City: Nature in the City, a project of Earth Island Institute, is San Francisco’s first organization wholly dedicated to ecological conservation, restoration and stewardship of the Franciscan bioregion. Website: http://natureinthecity.org/urbanbiodiversity.php

Development Challenges, South-South Solutions was launched as an e-newsletter in 2006 by UNDP’s South-South Cooperation Unit (now the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation) based in New York, USA. It led on profiling the rise of the global South as an economic powerhouse and was one of the first regular publications to champion the global South’s innovators, entrepreneurs, and pioneers. It tracked the key trends that are now so profoundly reshaping how development is seen and done. This includes the rapid take-up of mobile phones and information technology in the global South (as profiled in the first issue of magazine Southern Innovator), the move to becoming a majority urban world, a growing global innovator culture, and the plethora of solutions being developed in the global South to tackle its problems and improve living conditions and boost human development. The success of the e-newsletter led to the launch of the magazine Southern Innovator.  

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5311-1052.

© David South Consulting 2022

Categories
Archive

African Infrastructure Dreams Back on Agenda

By David SouthDevelopment Challenges, South-South Solutions

New UNOSSC banner Dev Cha 2013

SOUTH-SOUTH CASE STUDY

Africa’s patchy infrastructure is not keeping pace with the continent’s economic growth.

Satellite photos of Africa at night show a place where light is concentrated overwhelmingly in the South – primarily South Africa – and in the North, with a sprinkling of lights on the west and east coasts (http://geology.com/articles/satellite-photo-earth-at-night.shtml).

This is just one visually arresting way to view the much larger problem of the continent lacking 21st-century infrastructure – from roads to airports to sewage and water services to harbors and rail connections. All are in desperate need of an upgrade.

The World Bank says only one in four people has access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the region will require more than US $300 billion in investment to achieve universal electricity access by 2030.

This lack of modern infrastructure is clashing with Africa’s impressive economic growth in recent years. The continent will be home to seven of the 10 fastest growing economies in the world by 2015, according to the IMF. Yet still too much of this is a reflection of a booming resource economy, which sounds impressive in numbers, but still leaves much of the continent’s population living in a day-to-day world of underdevelopment and poverty.

Africa desperately needs further investment in infrastructure. The good news is that a mix of positive developments is coming together to breathe life into efforts to upgrade the continent.

One is a new campaign to mobilize Africa’s wealthiest to stump up the necessary funds to conduct feasibility studies to lay the groundwork for a big boost to infrastructure spending in the coming years. Another is a flurry of new pledges from the United States to spend more in Africa to increase access to energy – a necessary precondition to improvements to living standards. China, too, is to continue to grow its already substantial investments in Africa.

For innovators, better infrastructure across Africa will make it easier to export products, connect with markets and customers and gain access to new technologies and products available to others around the world.

The Made in Africa Foundation (madeinafricafoundation.co.uk) hopes to turn to Africa’s wealthy global community to help with funding the feasibility studies required to unleash a new wave of infrastructure spending and building across the continent.

Africa takes up 30 million square kilometers (UNEP), is home to approximately 15 per cent of the world’s population and has 60 per cent of the world’s potential agricultural land. Yet, just 34 per cent of Africa can be reached by road and only 30 per cent has access to electricity. One estimate has placed the cost of meeting Africa’s power and transport needs at US $28 trillion by 2050.

That is a vast amount of money, and nobody will commit those sums unless they know that work has gone into planning for this infrastructure and that people are thinking long-term. This is where the Made in Africa Foundation wants to make a difference: it is hoping to get Africa’s wealthy to contribute US $400 million to fund feasibility studies which in turn will kick-off a US $68 billion first phase in investment into roads, railways, ports and energy.

“In 2009, there was (US) $150bn (billion) available to spend, but no bankable infrastructure projects in Africa,” that these funds could be directed towards, said the Foundation’s George Brennan. “These figures should make us angry – the problem is not the availability of funding but the fact that projects are not in a condition to be funded.”

Just as a global diaspora of Indians and Chinese have been instrumental in economic growth and development in India and China in the past two decades, so it is hoped the same formula can be applied to the equally substantial, successful and wealthy African diaspora.

“African Americans spend (US) $1 trillion every year in their economy, but what do they spend on Africa? About 0.01 percent,” said Chris Cleverly, Director of the Made in Africa Foundation. “They have the wherewithal to make profound differences – personally, and by lobbying their pension funds, investment advisers and government to invest in Africa on the basis that it provides good returns.

“It was China and India’s diasporas that developed them – it is the same with Africa’s now.”

Ozwald Boateng (http://ozwaldboateng.co.uk), the dynamic Ghanaian-descended London tailor who built his reputation on a quirky and modern take on traditional British bespoke suits, took the lead along with the Ugandan Prince Hassan Kimbugwe (http://www.cdrex.com/prince-hassan-kimbugwe/1251509.html) and former British barrister Chris Cleverly.

Boateng’s reputation and fame rose along side the buzzing British capital throughout the 2000s. But now he is reaching back to Africa to lead a campaign to substantially raise the level of investment in the continent’s creaking, antiquated or non-existent infrastructure.

He is trying to rally Africa’s wealthiest business leaders to contribute to creating a 21st-century African infrastructure of roads, railways, ports and power supplies. Made in Africa is tackling the fact many big global investors are willing to invest in Africa but find it difficult to do so. Much has to be done before an investor can come along and start, for example, building a new road network or airport. Local governments need to do the initial site survey and environmental impact studies and develop a larger vision for where they would like their country to go and how its cities are to develop.

The campaign got underway with a star-studded gala event earlier this year in Marrakech, Morocco, at the African Banker Awards (http://www.ic-events.net/awards/african_banker_awards_2013/). It also comes with a film, Our Future, Made in Africa, to help explain the campaign and the company.

Some of the people who attended included Nigerian philanthropist Tony Elumelu, Angola’s richest woman Isabel dos Santos and Sudanese telecoms mogul Mo Ibrahim.

“This is the start of fully understanding what Africa can do for itself,” said Boateng. “The Chinese managed to build a railway across China; the Japanese have the bullet train – we need to get past thinking about why it’s difficult to create the roads and railways that Africa needs and just get on with it.”

The Foundation is being supported by the African Development Bank (http://www.afdb.org/en/), a long-time supporter of African infrastructure investment through loans and technical assistance.

An additional boost to African development comes from a recent U.S. government pledge to spend US $7 billion over the next five years in Africa to improve access to energy. Energy is the needed fuel for any significant improvements to human development over the long-term.

U.S. President Barack Obama announced “Power Africa” (http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/30/fact-sheet-power-africa) while he was in Cape Town, South Africa on his recent African tour. At the heart of Power Africa is the pledge to double access to power in Africa. According to medical journal The Lancet, 3.5 million Africans die every year due to indoor air pollution – a figure larger than those who die every year from malaria and HIV/AIDS combined. The pollution results from the fumes caused by burning fuel for cooking, warmth and light.

President Obama promised the funding to help governments in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria and Tanzania. The funds will be used to boost access to electricity for 20 million households. Funds will also be used to help Angola and Mozambique modernize their energy export sectors.

Power Africa will act as a go-between to encourage links and deals between American energy companies and African partners.

On top of this, Power Africa is being supplemented by an additional US $10 billion in private sector contributions, including a commitment from the General Electric Company to bring 5,000 megawatts of affordable energy to Tanzania and Ghana.

In total, the US estimates it will take US $300 billion in additional funds to bring full power to sub-Saharan Africa.

For the past decade, the biggest change in Africa’s infrastructure story has come from the growing role played by China. China has become Africa’s largest single trading partner, with bilateral trade reaching US $166 billion in 2011 – a jump of 33 per cent from 2010. The total volume was valued at $198.5 billion in 2012 and is expected to surpass $380 billion by 2015.

And much, much more has been promised to come: China’s President Xi Jinping (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi_Jinping) renewed a pledge to offer US $20 billion in loans to Africa in March 2013 (Reuters). Much of this is going to electricity-generation projects.

Published: July 2013

Resources

1) China in Africa: The Real Story is a blog tracking the relationship and digging up the real numbers on what is happening. Website: http://www.chinaafricarealstory.com/

2) The China-Africa Development Fund (CADFund) will invest US $2.4 billion in African projects, according to its President Chi Jianxin. Website: http://www.cadfund.com/en/

3) Map of Africa’s major infrastructure: The image shows how infrastructure in Africa is growing rapidly, but is still largely concentrated in coastal regions and those with large mineral deposits. This means that rural and isolated populations often do not have access to modern energy and the benefits that it can bring. Website: http://www.one.org/us/2011/05/10/map-of-africas-major-infrastructure/

4) Dead Aid by Dambisa Moyo. In the past 50 years, more than US $1 trillion in development-related aid has been transferred from rich countries to Africa. Website: http://www.dambisamoyo.com/books-and-publications/book/dead-aid

Find more in Southern Innovator Issue 4: Cities and Urbanization

https://g.co/kgs/y2K5Hy

Development Challenges, South-South Solutions was launched as an e-newsletter in 2006 by UNDP’s South-South Cooperation Unit (now the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation) based in New York, USA. It led on profiling the rise of the global South as an economic powerhouse and was one of the first regular publications to champion the global South’s innovators, entrepreneurs, and pioneers. It tracked the key trends that are now so profoundly reshaping how development is seen and done. This includes the rapid take-up of mobile phones and information technology in the global South (as profiled in the first issue of magazine Southern Innovator), the move to becoming a majority urban world, a growing global innovator culture, and the plethora of solutions being developed in the global South to tackle its problems and improve living conditions and boost human development. The success of the e-newsletter led to the launch of the magazine Southern Innovator.  

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5311-1052.

© David South Consulting 2022

Categories
Archive Blogroll

Innovations In Green Economy: Top Three Agenda

By David South

southasiadiasters.net December 2013

The transition to a green economy has reached a crossroads: while multilateral global initiatives have been long-running and complex, the idea of a green economy still seems fragile and achieving it far from certain. In the face of the ravages of the global economic crisis that has raged since 2007/2008, countries are now trying to roll back their green pledges or slow the pace of transition. 

This exposes a dilemma: a perception that a green economy is in conflict with economic growth, prosperity and the advance of human development, particularly in developing countries seeking to make rapid gains in reducing poverty and building a middle class, consumer society. 

Three things need to be foremost in the minds of those who care about creating a global green economy in the 21st century: innovation in design, in market prices and in business models. I think these three factors will be the deciding elements in whether green technologies are taken up quickly and used by large numbers of people to improve their lives. 

The green option needs to always be the more appealing, cheaper option that also improves living standards. Happily, many people are doing this all around the world – you just may not have heard of them yet (unless you are reading Southern Innovator magazine that is). 

As editor of the magazine Southern Innovator since 2011, I have had the privilege to meet, interview and see first-hand green economy innovators across the global South and profile them in the magazine. What has stood out for me is this: the ones who have achieved sustainable success have put a great deal of effort into design – how the technology is made, what it looks like and how it is used, how efficiently it is made and distributed – while also thinking through the business case for their work and how to make it appealing to others. 

We have tried to apply this thinking to the magazine as well, by using clear and modern design with bright, eye-pleasing colours, and by choosing to use 100 per cent renewable energy (much of it from geothermal sources) for the magazine’s design and layout and to have it printed on paper from sustainable forest sources. 

The fourth issue of Southern Innovator (www.southerninnovator.org), on cities and urbanization, launched in October at the Global South-South Development Expo 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya. It profiles many practical initiatives and innovators that are currently building green homes, communities and even whole cities. The magazine’s fifth issue will focus on the theme of waste and recycling and hopes to be a one-stop source of inspiration to better use the finite resources of planet earth.

– David South, Editor, Southern Innovator
United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC)

Southern Innovator Issue 1: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Q1O54YSE2BgC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 2: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ty0N969dcssC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 3: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AQNt4YmhZagC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 4: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9T_n2tA7l4EC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 5: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6ILdAgAAQBAJ&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5311-1052.

© David South Consulting 2021

Categories
Archive

Turning Human Waste to Fertilizer: An African Solution

By David South, Development Challenges, South-South Solutions

SOUTH-SOUTH CASE STUDY

While South Africa has been free of the racist Apartheid regime since the mid-1990s, the expected boost to living standards for the majority black population has not been as widespread and as quick as many had expected.

One important aspect of lifting living standards is making sure the entire population has access to adequate sanitation and hygiene services. Another is making sure they have access to adequate and healthy food sources. A bright idea based on intensive research is meeting both goals in an innovative way.

According to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (http://www.csir.co.za/), some 11 million South Africans have received access to basic sanitation services since 1994 – but 13.3 million still lacked basic sanitation services by 2008.

The Water Research Commission (WRC) (http://www.wrc.org.za/) believes there is a crisis with South Africa’s toilet pit latrines, which are quickly filling up past their original design capacity. WRC’s solution is to turn the human faeces or faecal sludge deposited in pit latrines into fertilizer for farming and agriculture. The Water Research Commission is advocating using the fertilizer either for fruit trees or for trees that will be turned to income sources like paper and fuel.

The WRC’s project and series of experiments are called “What happens when pit latrines get full?”

“Only one third of municipalities have a budget to maintain on-site sanitation,” WRC researcher and scientist David Still told Inter Press Service (IPS). “If pits fill up, all the hard work that was done to address the sanitation backlog will be wasted. Why not use faecal sludge to address the growing problem of food insecurity by planting fruit trees? Or use the sludge to cultivate trees for fuel or paper production?”

Human faecal sludge contains a variety of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphates and potassium. The WRC estimates the average person excretes enough human faecal sludge per year to fertilize 300 to 400 square metres of crops.

The big reason people are reluctant to use human waste as fertilizer is because of the pathogens it contains. Spreading this on edible crops is dangerous and it is also a risk to groundwater when it leaches in to the soil.

The WRC conducted research on two sites: Umlazi and Karkloof, both in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. They used property owned by the South African Paper and Pulp Industry (SAPPI) and the local municipality.

The first step in the experiments was to bury the sludge in pits and plant crops on top of it. The pathogens were contained using this method and in time died off.

The test trenches were 0.75 metres in depth and filled with different quantities of sludge. Two control sites did not use faecal sludge. The scientists found the sites where the human waste was used saw plant growth and volume increase by “as much as 80 per cent.”

They then tested for pathogens in the soil. This included looking for the eggs of the large roundworm (http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Roundworm/Pages/Introduction.aspx), a parasite whose presence would be harmful to humans. The site was tested over a period of 30 months, but none could be found.

Tests for microbes at the Umlazi site also found none. The plants were found to have healthy dark green leaves and the trees grew larger with the sludge present.

Researchers also monitored the groundwater around the sites. They found in flat ground and sandy soil there was no impact. In the site with sloping and shallow soil, small increases in nitrate were observed in the groundwater after rainfall.

They concluded the best place to apply this technique is in places that are flat and where the soil is deep.

One local resident, Lindiwe Khoza, was selected to be part of the test. Citrus and peach trees were planted on top of the buried sludge.

She told IPS: “The fruit grows much faster and it seems to be tastier and juicier than fruit bought at supermarkets. We now enjoy fruit from our own garden.”

WRC’s clever solution to these twin problems could help make life much more pleasant in communities still grappling with poor hygiene services, while dramatically improving the health of crops and their yields.

Resources

1) World Bank guide to pit latrines. Website:http://water.worldbank.org/shwresource-guide/infrastructure/menu-technical-options/pit-latrines

2) A video on how to construct a ventilated pit latrine. Website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4yfAyhiV74

3) A Practical Guide for Building a Simple Pit Latrine: How to Build Your Latrine and Use It Hygienically, for the Dignity, Health, and Well Being of Your Family. Website: http://www.crsprogramquality.org/publications/2011/9/13/a-practical-guide-forbuilding-a-simple-pit-latrine-how-to-b.html

4) The Control of Pathogens from Human Waste and their Aquatic Vectors by L. E. Obeng. Website: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4312882?uid=3738032&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21100919752851

By David South, Development Challenges, South-South Solutions

Published: July 2012

Development Challenges, South-South Solutions was launched as an e-newsletter in 2006 by UNDP’s South-South Cooperation Unit (now the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation) based in New York, USA. It led on profiling the rise of the global South as an economic powerhouse and was one of the first regular publications to champion the global South’s innovators, entrepreneurs, and pioneers. It tracked the key trends that are now so profoundly reshaping how development is seen and done. This includes the rapid take-up of mobile phones and information technology in the global South (as profiled in the first issue of magazine Southern Innovator), the move to becoming a majority urban world, a growing global innovator culture, and the plethora of solutions being developed in the global South to tackle its problems and improve living conditions and boost human development. The success of the e-newsletter led to the launch of the magazine Southern Innovator.  

Follow @SouthSouth1

Google Books: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9fRcAwAAQBAJ&dq=development+challenges+july+2012&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/DavidSouth1/development-challenges-july-2012-issue

Southern Innovator Issue 1: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Q1O54YSE2BgC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 2: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ty0N969dcssC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 3: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AQNt4YmhZagC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 4: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9T_n2tA7l4EC&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Southern Innovator Issue 5: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6ILdAgAAQBAJ&dq=southern+innovator&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5311-1052.

© David South Consulting 2021